Cotton is a fiber collected from the bolls of cotton crop. It has the shape of a twisted helical ribbons with a length of 2 - 50 mm. Cellulose is the main component (83-89%). Cotton is the main raw material occurring in the textile industry. It is used in the manufacture of yarns, threads, fabrics, knitted fabrics and non-wovens . Short fibres (bristle and down) are used in the manufacture of cotton and cellulose.
Thread is a product with considerable length and small thickness in relation to it . Thread is made of fibres which are composite friction forces through their mutual twisting. The are two types of thread : yarn made from staple fibres and silk - filament. Threads tend to be single or multiple (acquired by mutual twisting, spinning two or more threads), plain and fancy. The thickness of thread are given in measurement called tex . It is used in the manufacture of fabrics and sewing (thread) embroidery.
Weaving is a craft and textile department. It is engaged in manual or mechanic weaving on a loom
Loom is a machine for the manufacture of the fabric due to repeated mutual interlacing of warp and weft yarns. There are a basic mechanisms of the loom: power cord matrix, finished fabric winding mechanism on the shaft, the opening mechanism pass through higher one and leave the remaining group of warp threads with the program dictated by weaving weave, weft introducing a mechanism to shed the mechanism killing topic to the transverse edges of the emerging fabric. In the 60s of twentieth century it began to be used shuttleless looms in which the thread is inserted into the shed with compressed air (pneumatic looms) or pressurized liquid (hydraulic loom), grippers, rapiers, flexible or rigid, etc. Speed shuttleless looms weaving can be five times higher than conventional looms. The invention of the loom is considered to be a achievements of primeval human which determined the further development of human civilization. First looms workshops was powered by force man . It appeared approximately in 5 000 BC . To Europe, looms came from China by the Byzantines (twelfth century came to Poland ) and through Sicily to Italy (XII century) and Germany (XIII century). In 1733, J. Kay invented the shuttle speed ( manual loom ) and in 1785 E. Cartwright -mechanic loom. The first automatic loom was built in 1890 in the United States by the constructor called J. Northrop. The development of looms without shuttle occurred after World War II.
Weaving is the interweaving of two mutually perpendicular sets of threads: longitudinal warp and cross thread with the aim of producing fabric. The order of interleaving the individual strands of both systems obtained determines the type of weave weaving.
The warp are the threads that are arranged along the fabric, interwoven with the theme.
Weft is a yarn system is interwoven in the fabric of the matrix perpendicular to the longitudinal edge of the fabric.
Weaving strands are orderly manner mutual interweaving of warp and weft of the fabric. The place of crossing the strands (the cover) can be warp (on top is warp thread) and weft (on top of the weft thread). Minimum number of warp or weft threads are followed by repeated interleaving method called the report. Weaving strands are divided into:
1) basic which include weaves: plain, twill and satin
2) derived material such as rep weave, panama and oblique
3) modified and stacker
4) made with the layered systems of warp and weft
Structurally simplest and most common is a plain weave that is two-thread report warp and weft. Strands are slanted reports at least three thread and spread obliquely coverage. Satin and satin weaves are reports of at least equal five-thread .
Jacquard mechanism is a device used at the loom production of all over patterns fabrics. Jacquard mechanism is controlled by the objective of the program (patter machines ) groups of warp threads on a loom. Thanks to the use of such a device looms, it is possible to create patterns on a fabric non-geometric .
Finishing processes are the general operations which are subjected to textiles to impart specific properties such as mechanical strength, static electrical, smoothness, shine, softness, non contractibility ,shrinking , retardant, fire resistance, ease crowding dirt-repellent, colour or pattern colour, the effect of waffles and more. Finishing processes are divided into:
- chemical which include for example dyeing of fibres, yarn, bleaching, printing, textiles, dressing, mercerising
- mechanical and physical characteristics which include stroking, scratching, curling, hairdressing, tanning, felting and ironing.
Mercerization is finishing of cotton textiles and yarn through the tension and action of sodium hydroxide solution. The process is carried out continuously for mercerization machine . It increases the tensile strength, easy dyeing and gives shine.
Sanforizing (steaming) is subjecting the fabric to the action of hot steam and high temperature metal shaft reconstringe rubber belt cooperating with cold water cooled in order to prevent the later (during use) of shrinking under the influence of moisture . It reduces fabric shrinkage.
Dyeing of fibers is set of operations performed in order to give the fibres a single, sufficiently permanent colouring which is the result of physical and chemical processes that occur between the molecules of dye and the fibre. Since the processes - adsorption of the dyer , its dissolution in the fibre and the chemical reactions between the dye molecules and fibres - there is parallel, but to different degrees, depending on the type of dye and the dyed fibres, so it is not possible explanation for colouring fibres based on a single, common theory. Dyeing is carried in an apparatus dying - dyeing machines colored product which is in contact with the bath colorant - often an aqueous solution or suspension of the dye with the addition of excipients. Due to the construction of natural cellulose fibres (cotton, linen) there are use the following colours:
1 Reactive dyes - typically provide a high degree of the fibre, to displace well, have good resistance to wet as water or sweat. A weakness is the low light fastness, chlorine or chloride water and weather conditions.
2 Vat dyes - are very difficult to apply and relatively expensive, however, give the best and greatest resistance values such as:
- Resistance to artificial light, natural or alternative
- Resistance to chlorine and water, chloride
- Wash fastness even at high temperatures
- Resistance to sweat
- Resistance to weather conditions and more
Due to the factors there are particularly use for the production of fabrics for clothing professional military and the hotel's linens and tablecloths.
3 Sulphur dyes are due to ecological aspects and a small palette of colours have relatively little use. They are characterized by a relatively low price and very high resistances to light. Their disadvantage is the relatively low resistance to wet and maintenance in baths containing chlorine.
4 Pigment dyes that are insoluble in water, organic and organic colored substances fixed on the fabric by means of a binder. They are very difficult in the application giving good light fastness and chlorine. Resistance to wet depend on the amount of the binder and the dye application and can achieve a high level.
Bleaching is a set of processes to give a certain degree of whiteness of different materials. In the textile industry are most commonly used bleaching involving the removal of all impurities and decolourization of fibres as a result of oxidizing compounds. The apparent improvement in the whiteness is achieved by application of an optical brightener. The proper whiteness is carried out on the paretic ward .
Textile printing is a single or multi colour flat textile dyeing. The printing inks are used for printing of textile which are aqueous solutions or suspensions with the addition of so-called dye that means the printing densities that gives the paints suitable viscosity. Textile printing process consists of three basic steps:
1) application of the product colour printing using the appropriate media format
2) fix the dyestuff, depth by heat treatment in a suitable medium
3) purification of the product with residues of paint
This finish dressing by impregnating suitable means, hereinafter aperture, textiles, wood, paper and leather in order to improve their performance, for example, to impart gloss, flexibility or stiffness, or resistance to heat, water, micro-organisms, insects and others. Universal finishes are used to improve operation in one of several properties. Good feature is non-washing textile finish.
Honing is a final finishing textiles fabrics, depth. Cotton by passing it through a calendar multi-shaft (calendar) respectively between the high-pressure shafts before honing fabric is impregnated.
Scratching the fabric surface is mining on the ends of the fibres or fabric fibres loosening griming in that it increase the heat insulation. Used in the manufacture of blankets, artificial fur, flannel
Tanning is the process of finishing fabrics consisting of moving it at the correct speed over a gas flame. Its aim is to remove from the surface of the fabric down and protruding fibres, bundles, etc., while unleashing its core layer.
Lumen fibre is basically tube. The cross-section has the shape of beads. The empty space in the middle is about 15 - 20% of the volume of the fibre. This increases the insulation value products. Recommended for use in the manufacture of sleeping bags, warm quilts and other "insulators" such as clothing.
Fringe (in French ,, bordure ’’ - border) is a decorative strip located on the edge of the towel made by weaving using coloured thread. It is the method of relief or satin weave.
Terry type of fabric in which there are two warp used : basic and cover (loop) and one thread. Warps are wound on separate shafts because the basic matrix must be taut, warp loop - is stretched slightly.
Relief or recess in the case of terry fabrics is narrow, flat surface of the fabric without loops. The pattern made by this method has a "selecting loops" in specific locations.
Shearing in the manufacturing of terry fabrics it is the process of cutting the top cover of terry fabric and as a result we get velour fabric.
Woven is the type of textile known as "non-woven product." Name that defines a material made of loose fibres by weight, mixed in flat product using different binding agents (fibre glued, padded, microfiber) or by using mechanical treatments (needling, stitching) for bonding of the fibres present in the form of fleece.